[526] The "Hindu synthesis" or "Brahmanical synthesis"[33][34] incorporated Sramanic and Buddhist influences[34][440][which?] [308] Among Vaishnavism sub-traditions such as Swaminarayan, the home shrines can be elaborate with either a room dedicated to it or a dedicated part of the kitchen.

The eternity stems from the fact that Hinduism is not ‘spread’ and but followed for generation after generation by way ‘Sruti’ and ‘Smruti’ which means ‘listened to’ and ‘remembered’.

[302] The other paths, left to the choice of a Hindu, are Jnana marga (path of knowledge), Karma marga (path of works), Rāja marga (path of contemplation and meditation). Liberation from samsara through moksha is believed to ensure lasting happiness and peace.

[433][note 29] Their religion was further developed when they migrated into the Ganges Plain after c. 1100 BCE and became settled farmers,[450][484][485] further syncretising with the native cultures of northern India. [48], The word "Hindu" is much older, and it is believed that it was used as the name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. [548][549], The first version of early Puranas, likely composed between 250 and 500 CE, show continuities with the Vedic religion, but also an expanded mythology of Vishnu, Shiva and Devi (goddess). This suggests that Indo-European speakers had a common linguistic origin known by scholars as Proto-Indo-European. 3100 BCE, while Gulshan (1940) dates the start of the reign of Manu Vaivasvata at 7350 BCE. [114][116], Halbfass states that, although Shaivism and Vaishnavism may be regarded as "self-contained religious constellations",[111] there is a degree of interaction and reference between the "theoreticians and literary representatives"[111] of each tradition that indicates the presence of "a wider sense of identity, a sense of coherence in a shared context and of inclusion in a common framework and horizon". [357] The most accepted view is that the greatest austerity comes from traveling on foot, or part of the journey is on foot, and that the use of a conveyance is only acceptable if the pilgrimage is otherwise impossible. [web 7] However, adds Sanderson, this Shaiva ascetic tradition viewed themselves as being genuinely true to the Vedic tradition and "held unanimously that the Śruti and Smṛti of Brahmanism are universally and uniquely valid in their own sphere, [...] and that as such they [Vedas] are man's sole means of valid knowledge [...]". [250], Smartism centers its worship simultaneously on all the major Hindu deities: Shiva, Vishnu, Shakti, Ganesha, Surya and Skanda. Dharma is considered the foremost goal of a human being in Hinduism.

[104][105] According to the Supreme Court of India, Unlike other religions in the World, the Hindu religion does not claim any one Prophet, it does not worship any one God, it does not believe in any one philosophic concept, it does not follow any one act of religious rites or performances; in fact, it does not satisfy the traditional features of a religion or creed. [520][note 40].

Secondly, Hinduism is not a single religion but embraces many traditions. As a premier religion, Hinduism played a pivotal role in steering the society. Some mobility and flexibility within the varnas challenge allegations of social discrimination in the caste system, as has been pointed out by several sociologists,[361][362] although some other scholars disagree. [157][158], Kāma (Sanskrit, Pali; Devanagari: काम) means desire, wish, passion, longing, pleasure of the senses, the aesthetic enjoyment of life, affection, or love, with or without sexual connotations. [111], Brahmins played an essential role in the development of the post-Vedic Hindu synthesis, disseminating Vedic culture to local communities, and integrating local religiosity into the trans-regional Brahmanic culture. [67], Michaels distinguishes three Hindu religions and four forms of Hindu religiosity. The Bhagavad Gita is an integral part of the Mahabharata and one of the most popular sacred texts of Hinduism. [611][612] As of 2020, BAPS, a charismatic offshoot established in 1907, is one of the fastest growing Hindu organisations, both in India and worldwide.[611][612]. ), The Secret Science of Solving Crossword Puzzles, Racist Phrases to Remove From Your Mental Lexicon. He was assassinated in 1948.

[233] The Kena Upanishad repeatedly asks kena, 'by what' power something is the case.



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