This view is not taught in wolf management programs.
 Further reason for the vulnerability of children is the fact that some may mistake wolves for dogs and thus approach them..  Records of wolf attacks in India began to be kept during the British colonial administration in the 19th century. The oral history of some Indigenous American tribes confirms that wolves did kill humans.  Such attacks typically occur in local clusters, and generally do not stop until the wolves involved are eliminated.. 2011. In Hazaribagh, Bihar, 115 children were killed between 1910 and 1915, with 122 killed and 100 injured in the same area between 1980 and 1986. Most rabid wolf attacks occur in the spring and autumn periods. At least 72 people were bitten between 1992 and 2000.  All mention of wolf attacks was subsequently censored. A report was presented in November 1947 describing numerous attacks, including ones perpetrated by apparently healthy animals, and gave recommendations on how to better defend against them.
Unprovoked attacks have been classified as "predatory"; "exploratory" or "investigative"; or "agonistic". Of the 80 described encounters, 39 involved aggressive behavior from apparently healthy wolves and 12 from animals confirmed to be rabid. Even when pressed until the death of the victim, agonistic attacks normally leave the victims body uneaten, at least for some time.
 Experts categorize wolf attacks into various types, including rabies-infected, predatory, agonistic, and defensive. His writings were widely accepted among Russian zoological circles, though he subsequently changed his stance when he was given the task of heading a special commission after World War II investigating wolf attacks throughout the Soviet Union, which had increased during the war years.
Journal of Wildlife Research 2(2):94–101. Wolves apparently develop the "furious" phase of rabies to a very high degree, which, coupled with their size and strength, makes rabid wolves perhaps the most dangerous of rabid animals, with bites from rabid wolves being 15 times more dangerous than those of rabid dogs.
 Police records collected from Korean mining communities during Japanese rule indicate that wolves attacked 48 people in 1928, more than those claimed by boars, bears, leopards and tigers combined.
1997. Between April 1989 to March 1995, wolves killed 92 people in southern Bihar, accounting for 23% of 390 large mammal attacks on humans in the area at that time.  Although Italy has no records of wolf attacks after WWII and the eradication of rabies in the 1960s, historians examining church and administrative records from northern Italy's central Po Valley region (which includes a part of modern-day Switzerland) found 440 cases of wolves attacking people between the 15th and 19th centuries. 1999. Let’s look at 5 of the largest subspecies of wolves in the world and learn a little bit about each of them. In the half-century up to 2002, there were eight fatal attacks in Europe and Russia, three in North America, and more than 200 in south Asia. This was apparent in cases involving habituated North American wolves in Algonquin Provincial Park, Vargas Island Provincial Park and Ice Bay, as well as 19th-century cases involving escaped captive wolves in Sweden and Estonia.
 In Latvia, records of rabid wolf attacks go back two centuries. Carnivore Attacks on Humans in Historic France and Germany: To Which Species Did the Attackers Belong? and D.K.  Wolf biologist L. David Mech hypothesized in 1998 that wolves generally avoid humans because of fear instilled by hunting.
Examples would include a captive wolf attacking an abusive handler; a mother wolf attacking a hiker who had wandered near her pups; an attack on a wolf hunter in active pursuit; or a wildlife photographer, park visitor, or field biologist who had gotten too close for the wolf's comfort. Experts may distinguish between captive and wild wolf attacks, the former referring to attacks by wolves, while still of course wild animals, are kept in captivity, perhaps as pets, in zoos, or similar situations.
Of these cases, only five were attributed to rabid animals. While such attacks may still be dangerous, they tend to be limited to quick bites and not pressed.  Following the Icy Bay incident, biologist Mark E. McNay compiled a record of wolf-human encounters in Canada and Alaska from 1915 to 2001. Those with little prior experience with humans, and those positively conditioned through feeding, may lack fear. Child lifting: Wolves in Hazaribagh, India. Their frequency varies with geographical location and historical period.  In contrast, forest-dwelling wolves in North America were noted for shyness. Mech, L. D. (1998), "Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?"
 Around 82 people were bitten by rabid wolves in Estonia during the 18th to 19th centuries, with a further 136 people being killed in the same period by non-rabid wolves, though it is likely that the animals involved in the latter cases were a combination of wolf-dog hybrids and escaped captive wolves. Image via Pixabay user Mingo123. Rajpurohit, K.S. Wolf attacks are injuries to humans or their property by any subspecies of wolf. In the former area, 721 people were killed by wolves in 1876, while in Bihar, the majority of the 185 recorded deaths at the time occurred mostly in the Patna and Bghalpur Divisions.  However, the zoologist Karl-Hans Taake found evidence that many of the alleged French wolf attacks occurring during the reign of Louis XIV were actually carried out by big carnivores of other species which had escaped from captivity. Gray wolf attacks are rare because wolves are often subsequently killed, or even extirpated in reaction by human beings.
As with predatory attacks, these may begin with or be limited to exploratory or investigative attacks designed to test the vulnerability and determination of the victim.  Although some North American biologists were aware of wolf attacks in Eurasia, they dismissed them as irrelevant to North American wolves. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFGraves2007 (, Jhala, Y.V.  Although they primarily target ungulates, wolves are at times versatile in their diet; for example, those in the Mediterranean region largely subsist on garbage and domestic animals. , Cases of rabid wolves are low when compared to other species since wolves do not serve as primary reservoirs of the disease, but can be infected with rabies from other animals such as dogs, golden jackals and foxes. Butler, L., B. Dale, K. Beckmen, and S. Farley.
Unprovoked wolf attacks motivated by hunger are categorized as "predatory". , Wolf numbers consistently dropped across the US during the 20th century and by the 1970s they were only significantly present in Minnesota and Alaska (though in greatly reduced populations than prior to the European colonization of the Americas ). The heaviest wolf on record weighed 79.4kg, according to The International Wolf Centre in Ely in the US state of Minnesota. Experts categorize non-rabid attacks based on the behavior of the victims prior to the attack and the motivations of the wolf. Attacks whose victims had been threatening, disciplining, disturbing, teasing, or annoying attacking wolves, their pups, families, or packs are classified as "provoked", "defensive" or "disciplinary". Ambio 28(2):162-166.  It is the most specialized member of its genus in the direction of carnivory and hunting large game.  His findings are criticized for failing to distinguish between rabid and predatory attacks, and the fact that the historical literature contained instances of people surviving the attacks at a time when there was no rabies vaccine. Biggest Wolf Ever: Mackenzie Valley Wolf. Mech, L. D.(1990) Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?.  Mech also noted that humans' upright posture is unlike wolves' other prey, and similar to some postures of bears, which wolves usually avoid. The reason for this is unclear, though it may be connected with the presence of jackals in those areas, as jackals have been identified as primary carriers. In the year 1939 shot male grey wolf weighed about 80 kilograms (175 pounds). The resulting decrease in human-wolf and livestock-wolf interactions helped contribute to a view of wolves as not dangerous to humans. Originally published as 'Biggest wolf ever' shot dead  There are few historical records or modern cases of wolf attacks in North America. This wolf was shot in Drayton Valley, Alberta.
, Predatory attacks can occur at any time of the year, with a peak in the June–August period, when the chances of people entering forested areas (for livestock grazing or berry and mushroom picking) increase, though cases of non-rabid wolf attacks in winter have been recorded in Belarus, the Kirovsk and Irkutsk districts, in Karelia, and in Ukraine.
Cases of rabies in wolves are very rare in North America, though numerous in the eastern Mediterranean, Middle East and Central Asia.
Bulgaria has one of the largest game populations in Europe, including more than 2500 grey wolves according to the latest tally. As with defensive attacks, such attacks are not always pressed, as the animal may break off the attack or be convinced to look elsewhere for its next meal. The Soviet authorities prevented the document from reaching both the public and those who would otherwise be assigned to deal with the problem. Their large size and highly carnivorous dentition supports the proposal that the dire wolf was a predator that fed on large prey.
 In 1875, more people were killed by wolves than tigers, with the worst affected areas being the North West Provinces and Bihar. Unlike with predatory attacks, the victims of rabid wolves are not eaten, and the attacks generally only occur on a single day. His conclusions received some limited support by biologists but were never adopted by United States Fish and Wildlife Service or any other official organisations. United States Fish and Wildlife Service concludes that wolves are very shy of humans but are opportunistic hunters and will attack humans if the opportunity arises and advise against "actions The leader of the pack is the Mackenzie Valley Wolf, also known as the Canis lupus occidentalis, the Northwestern Wolf, or the Canadian Timber Wolf. It gets its name from the Mackenzie River Valley in Canada where the largest wolf in the world is most frequently spotted. Wolves living in open areas, for example the North American Great Plains, historically showed little fear before the advent of firearms in the 19th century, and would follow human hunters to feed on their kills, particularly bison. McNay, Mark E. and Philip W. Mooney. Agonistic attacks are motivated not by hunger nor fear but rather by aggression; designed to kill or drive off a competitor away from a territory or food source. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, Alaska. Wolf attacks are more likely to happen when preceded by a long period of habituation, during which wolves gradually lose their fear of humans.
The country with the most extensive historical records is France, where nearly 7,600 fatal attacks were documented from 1200 to 1920. , There are no written records prior to the European colonization of the Americas. Gray wolf attacks are rare because wolves are often subsequently killed, or even extirpated in reaction by human beings. In the rare cases where adults were killed, the victims were almost always women. Child-lifting by wolves in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India.